Here you can read about wildlife concept and importance, as its legal protection in Brazil
I – Wildlife, concept
Nowadays people has been talking a lot about natural resources preservation, mainly in emergent countries as Brazil, where still are big forest extensions in Amazonian Rain Forest.
On the other hand, it is known that natural resources as the forestall cover are important for the economy of the countries which possess it, so the difficulty in maintaining them intact or preserved, notably because the big majority of the globe's nations don't have them anymore and are the richest countries, what make pressure on the most power countries each time bigger.
Natural resources may be generally divided in":
- mineral resources are the resources, which come from mineral exploitation as iron, copper, granite, marble, lime etc.
- hydrical resources are the ones that come from waters as the obtaining of potable water, irrigation, energy generation etc.
- botanical resources are the ones that come from flora exploitation, as wood extraction, fruits and from medicinal plants pharmacological potential.
- Fauna resources are the ones generated by the fauna, by hunting and authorized fishing, Sylvester animals creation for consume etc.
Here we are interest in making considerations about wildlife, its conception, importance as natural resource (fauna resources) and protection.
It may be said that wildlife of a region is the joint of live beings- animals and plants that have capacity of surviving and breeding freely in nature.
By its more dynamic characteristics, animals call more attention, so they will be our objects in wildlife study.
So, the animals that live in savage state are elements that form wildlife, compounding local fauna, which consists in the animals joint that live in a determined area.
As said by the evolutionist Ernst Mayr fauna is, stricto sensu “the totality of species in the area”, and lato sensu “the kinds of animals found in a area as a result of the history of the area and its present ecological conditions” (Evolution and Diversity. Selected essays of life. Harvard University Press. England, p.563).
Fauna may be domestic, compelling domesticated by the man animals and savage that are savage animals, animals that live in savage state, not depending on man for surviving and breeding, living freely in their habitat.
II – Wildlife importance
Wild fauna has fundamental importance:
- in the general ecosystems balance, because a lot of animals are vital for the existence of many plants, constituting in a link with breeding, as they are its polimizator agents, as in the case of hummingbirds, insects as butterflies, beetles etc.
- a lot of animals are seed disperses which have the necessity of passing by its intestinal tract, as a lot of mammals, and practically all the animals are excellent fertilizer agents.
- They also have their importance in the food chain.
Wildlife important factors: feeding; economical-touristic; educative and scenic
In feeding terms wild fauna was essential to human race that used to depend on it for surviving. Hunting was the rudimentary used way by our ancestral for food obtaining. It still is for many Indian tribes that live isolated in the Amazonian Rain Forest.
The wild fauna handling also may be too important for the called civilized man, which can maintain and develop wild animals' creations with the finality of obtaining protein. Each day the acquired scientific knowledge in this area provide a better development of this activity, what may result in a big usable species diversity, improving production quantity and quality, complementing the extracted products of domestic animals, by biotechnology and the use of genetic engineering. But all of these respecting the species preservation.
Economical- touristic factor
The maintenance of wild fauna, consequently of wildlife, also provides its touristic exploitation, because each year the number of people who looks for natural parks for seeing wild animals increases.
Just talking about birdwatchers- that are the ones who observe birds, it is estimated the existence of more than 80 million, representing a really important economical potential, because they need to be in hotels and use the commerce near the observing areas, generating this way big income. There is also fishing for feeding in natural areas that also generates million dollars all around the world. Besides these, the sportive fishing may become a big income way for the State by taxes and for a lot of people or enterprises that are directly or indirectly linked to it. In the USA, for example, this sport has become an industry with yearly direct invoicement around U$ 60 billion and is part of the preservation system of natural parks through its organizer Fish and Wildlife Service. Not counting the possibility of touristic exploitation of sportive fishing.
In relation to hunting, in economical terms it is not possible to hide that it is rental in some countries, but this is polemic. In some countries as Brazil it is not permitted, having just some exceptions.
In educational terms, the maintenance of wildlife is also too important, because it provides to young people the contact to wild animals knowing life in its primitive splendor, permitting that they have life and comportamental lessons through its attentive observing.
Another importance of wildlife maintenance through parks and natural reserves is the possibility of providing local people big plastic and scenic beauty, what value life condition of all that have access to it.
III – Brazilian Legal Protection
The fauna and flora protection may be done by: administrative and legal steps.
Administrative step- it is done by the creation of parks. In Brazil they are called Conservation Units, divided into the following categories: national, stative and county parks, ecological stations, natural forests, wildlife refugees, Environmental Protection Areas etc. All of them are created by the Public Power. The particular also can create areas of protection called Particular Reserve of Natural Patrimony, and are included in this category UNESCO biosphere reserve.
There still are the rules of international conventions that are adopted by many countries, as RAMSAR Convention about wet zones of international importance, especially as aquatic birds habitat, the Convention about international commerce of wild fauna and flora species in dangerous of extinction, known as CITES, where relates animals and plants that are in dangerous of extinction and rules its international commerce, just for saying some.
- Legal step - there are a lot of fauna and flora protective legislation in Brazil. Law n.º 5.197/67 protects wild animals, considering wild the ones that live out of captivity. It is also understood that wild fauna is public of people common use, at the Nation domain and it is treated as natural richness.
Brazilian Federal Constitution says that the competence for creating fauna laws is from the country and states, and the Public Power has to protect fauna and flora, prohibiting practical that put in risk its ecological function, cause species extinction or subdue animals to cruelty. There are also laws for protecting fishes (in their entire definition), the environmental crimes law etc. There are sufficient legislation for protecting wild fauna and flora and consequently wildlife.
Wildlife as environmental good
For being goods of stative property, of public domain at the same time as environmental goodies legally protected, as wild fauna and as flora, by extension of wildlife as a whole, can be protected by Public Civil Action. The Public Prosecutor and the entities that fill the requests can and must provide the law application if having any damage or threat of damage to these goodies.
IV – Conclusion
So, wildlife is a joint of elements that is composed by native fauna and flora, and that have vital importance for the maintenance of the Earth biosphere and consequently for human and their preservation it is primordial for maintaining life's quality in the planet, as life in the planet. Besides it can generate multiple benefits as seen, in a way that must be protected by the public power and by the collectivity, so we can have an equilibrated and healthy environment as it is said in our Federal Constitution.
It can be concluded that there will only be wildlife in some region if there is wild fauna in tune with wild flora, in a way that the preservation of forested natural areas is really important for the maintenance, and having to be by all of these one of the humanity's objectives in this XXI century.
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