(THE SCIENCE OF THE LIFE)
In this page, you will find some information on genetic engineering, this new science that has made possible the accomplishment of experiments in the area of the genetics, with surprising results on the life, as well as some of its results.
For its direct or indirect relation with environment, genetic engineering must have the attention of the environmental studious of the environmental law, among others, so the reason for this dedicated space to the subject.
I - Considerations:
With the recent spreading in almost all the media them first results it Human Genoma Design and the great interest on the transgenics, genetic engineering started to be white of attention as modern science. Nevertheless, and in the field of the right this new science already is juridically disciplined? It is what we will try to analyze.
It has centuries the humanity comes making the crossing of plants and animals with the purpose of improving them for its use and consumption. In the deep one they are about done genetic experiences in rudimentary and empirical way, but currently with the development of the biotechnology, the genetic improvement passed to be made of scientific form, through techniques developed for a new integrand science of the known biotechnology as genetic engineering.
II - Definition:
Genetic engineering can be defined as the set of techniques capable to allow the identification, manipulation, and multiplication of genes of the living creatures’ organisms.
III - What it makes:
Through this new science the manipulation of the DNA is possible, or either, of the acid deoxyribonucleic that exists in the cells of the living beings creatures and thus to recombine genes, modifying them, changing them or adding to genes of different origins creating new forms of life.
Genetic engineering makes possible:
- to map the sequence of the genoma of the animal species, including the human being (Human Genoma) and of vegetables.
- the creation of clones beings (copied),
- to develop the genetic therapy,
- to produce transgenic beings.
These new possibilities in the field of the genetics had started to worry governments and great part of the involved societies, therefore if the process badly will be directed will be able to harm the genetic patrimony, also irremediably. For this reason already it has legal forecast tutoring the activities of this new science.
IV – Brazilian legal control:
- Federal Constitution, art.225, §1º, II;
- Law 8.974, of 5,1,95 (Law of the Biosecurity)
In Brazil the legal control of genetic engineering is foreseen in art.225, §1º, II, of the Federal Constitution, where it says that it is Public Power obligation to preserve the diversity and the integrity of the genetic patrimony of the country and to fiscalize the dedicated entities to the research and manipulation of genetic material. Thus, the Public Power has the duty to preserve the diversity and integrity of the genetic patrimony, as well as the duty to fiscalize the researchers who manipulate genetic material and still is obliged to control the methods, activities and commercialization of products or substances that can cause damages to the environment, including there the related ones to the genetic manipulation.
The Law 8.974, of 5,1,95 (Law of the Biosecurity came prescribed interpolated propositions II and V of the paragraph 1º of the cited constitutional article, establishing norms for use of the techniques of genetic engineering and clearing in the environment of organisms genetically modified.
V - Genetic engineering makes possible:
- Mapping of the genome sequence:
Genoma: All the contained genetic material in the chromosomes of an organism is known as genoma. It can still be defined as the set of genes of a species.
Gene: it is the unit of DNA with capacity to synthesize a protein.
DNA is a molecule in form of composite double helix for nitrogen pairs and that it has capacity to store all the necessary information for the creation of an alive being.
Thanks to the advances of the biotechnology and through genetic engineering, it is possible to make the mapping and genome sequence of animals and vegetables.
The Human Genoma after many years of studies and much investment that involved U.S.A., the United Kingdom, France, Japan etc, arrived its first results.
Genetic disillusionment: as published widely in the press in general, the first results of the Genoma Design had in general left with a great surprise for the scientific community and the world: we do not have as many genes how much we imagined; by the way we have the same number that the maize and the double of the fly-of-fruits.
This puts cold water in the thesis of that they think that the human being is upper to all the other forms of life of our planet. On the another hand, it strengthens the thesis of some of that we are equal to all the animals, differentiating itself only in some forms of development of parts of the body, as the brain, what is nothing in biological terms.
The results of the Genoma Design take them to conclude that we must have more zoological humble and thus to start to treating them with more respect, after all are not upper to none of them. Knowing of this and ally the idea of that " intelligent " our responsibility magnifies.
From there, because we must give more attention and better protection to the environment with the elements that forms it.
B - Cloning:
It is the copy of a recombinant molecule of DNA, contending a gene or another sequences of DNA that if wants to study. It is the asexual reproduction from a cell mother, using genetically identical cells between it to the cell ancestor. The word cloning comes from the Greek " klón" that means " sprout ".
C - Genetic Therapy:
It is the handling based on the introduction of " healthy " genes, so that it can generate healthful proteins and substitute the defective ones.
D - Transgenics:
One of the experiments and results of the genetic engineering that have brought more controversial is the question of the production of transgenics in agriculture with the purpose of preventing plagues, greater resistance to intempéries to magnify the production.
These products genetically modified and known by acronym GM (genetically modified) are taking the scientists, environmentalists, producers, jurists among others, to much quarrel on its real use and convenience. To a large extent of the Europe, it has official reject and of the population to the GMs, while U.S.A., Argentina, Canada, China, Mexico and Australia adopt in its agricultural politics this type of product.
In our country the question is in the apex of the quarrel, having forceful paths pro and others not less forceful against. The ones that they are against the use of the GMs argue that for being genetically modified the products they are not natural, dangerous and they are potentially harmful to the environment, also already is said in " genetic pollution ". Already the favorable ones say that it does not have test of damages to the health human being and the environment.
Of any form, the quarrel still goes far, therefore they lack to technician elements of scientific experimentation capable to give concrete and safe subsidies how much to the effect of these products, mainly for if treating to new technologies and products.
VI - Conclusion:
Our genetic patrimony could be engaged if it will not have in genetic engineering a manipulation or conscientious, healthy, correct, legal and ethical use of the features that compose it.
Therefore the scientific community, the Public Power and the conscientious citizens must be intent and to fiscalize the application of the new techniques of genetic engineering, its results and products, good to know the terms of its legal guardianship and to use of the legal mechanisms of protection through the public civil action, in if evidencing scientifically danger or damage to the environment.
There it can have application one of the most important principles of the environmental law: the principle of the precaution.
VII - Sites to know more about it:
A Engenharia Genética
A época dos alimentos transgênicos
Alimentos Bio-Engeiranhados: Benefícios e Riscos.
Alimentos Transgenicos no Brasil
Apostila Completa Sobre Transgênicos
As incertezas dos alimentos transgênicos
Biologia - Engenharia Genética
Biologia na Rede
Centro de Estudos do Genoma - USP
Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança - CTNBio
Curso de Atualização em Biossegurança de Engenharia Genética
Download de Legislação - ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA
El navegante de EL MUNDO
Engenharia Genética /Goldim&Matte
Engenharia Genética /Goldim&Matte
Engenharia genética constrói futuro da Medicina - Simpósio - Jornal da Unesp
Especial - Transgênicos
Especial - Transgênicos
Estado investe na engenharia genética
Folha Online - Ciência - Para governo federal, rotulagem de transgênicos não é prioridade
Folha Online - Primeiro jornal em tempo real em língua portuguesa
Gape: Curso de Licenciatura em Engenharia Biológica
Homepage do Vilsão
Infoagro 2000 - Congresso e Mostra de Agroinformática
informações engenharia genética
Lei 8.974 de 5/1/1995 - Engenharia Genética
Mundo Verde - Transgênicos
PlanetaVida seu portal de saúde na Internet
Por um Brasil Livre de Transgênicos -( Apostila das ONGS )-
Portal Estadão - O Estado de S. Paulo
PORTEIRA DO AGROBRASIL - O Portal do Setor Agropecuário Brasileiro - HOME!
PROJECT GUTENBERG OFFICIAL HOME SITE - INDEX -- Free Books On-Line –
PROJECT GUTENBERG OFFICIAL HOME SITE - INDEX –
http://.www.forense.com/PROYECTO GENOMA HUMANO
Projeto Genoma Humano [Alexandra R.M.de Almeida]
Projeto Genoma Humano [Prof.José Roberto Goldim]
Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano Nº5
Revista Dinheiro ONLINE: Negócios - Transgênicos
Seminário Internacional sobre Biodiversidade e Transgênicos
Simpósio Nacional Sobre Alimentos Transgênicos
Títulos - GENOMA FUNCIONAL
Universidade Federal Fluminense
Yahoo! Ciência>Biologia>Biotecnologia> Engenharia Genética
Yahoo! Temas Atuais
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