are centuries that humanity have been crossing plants and animals with the
finality of making them better for use and consume. They are genetic
experiences that are done in a rudimentar and empiric manner, but nowadays,
with technology development, the genetic improvement has being done in a
scientific way, by the use of more developed technics in a Science that is
known as genetic engineer, that can be defined as a whole os techniques
capable of permitting the identification, manipuilation and multiplication
of alive organisms genes.
this new Science it is possible to manipulate DNA that exists on creatures
cells and so recombining genes, changing them, or adding genes from
different origin, creating new ways of life.
new techniques and also genetic engeneering are the biotechnology, that is
the Science which studies, researches and promotes the gen transfers from
a specie to another one, attributting to this the natural characterists
from that one.
biotechnology is most unterstood as a science that is directly linked to
the genetic sunject, by the power of its own human technological
development, as said before.
Genetic Patrimony Legal Protection
biotechnology is directly linked to the genetic subject, there is nothing
more important than talking about genetic patrimony, mainly in terms of
Brazil the genetic patrimony is legally protected, by our Federal
Constitution (art. 225, § 1º, II), that says it is an obligation of the
Public Power preserving the genetic diversity and the country’s genetic
patrimony integrity. So, the Public Power must preserve the genetic
patrimony diversity and integrity, as also the obligation of taking care
of the researchers that handle genetic material, and finally it is obliged
to controlling methods, activities and commerce of products or substances
that may cause damage to the environment, including the ones related to
is also ordinary legislation
(Laws n.º 8.974: biosecurity, n.º 9.456: cultivates).
Biotechnology has found in
agriculture one of its strongest performance field, producing, otherwise,
transgenic food with the finallity of avoiding noxious weeds, more
resistance to bad weather and so growing production. But this genetically
modified products and known as GM (genetically modified) are making
scientists, environmentalistas, productors, jurists among another ones,
discussing a lot about its real convenience and use. In almost all
Europe there is an official and popular rejection to GMs, while at the
USA, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Mexico and Australia they adopt in their
agriculture politics this kind of product. In our country this subject is
on high discussion. There is a group that is pro GMs, and they say that
there is not any proof of damage to health and for the environment. On the
other hand there is a group that is completelly against GMs, pleading that
by being genetically modified, products are not natural, dangerous and and
potentially damageous to environment. This is a long discussion, because
there aren’t technical elements of scientific experimentation
capable of bringing concrete and secure subsidies in relation to
the effects of these products, mainly because it is something completely
So, our genetic patrimony may be under obligation if there is not a consciouss, healthy, correct, legal and ethic manipulation and use of the resources that compose it.
We can’t forget that the genetic patrimony is a good from everybody use, as said in our Federal Constitution, and so must be protected and fiscalized by everyone.
And so comes biotechnology that must rule its researches for
getting better quality and quantity to food, for example, without bringing
damage to environment and extensively to human.
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